Extinguishers Have Limits
Extinguisher limits include:
- The extinguisher must be large enough to put out the fire. Many portable extinguishers discharge completely in as few as 8 to 10 seconds.
- The extinguisher must be within easy reach and in working order, fully charged.
- The extinguisher must match the type of fire being fought. Extinguishers that contain water are unsuitable for use on grease or electrical fires.
- The operator must have a clear escape route that will not be blocked by fire.
- The operator must know how to use the extinguisher. There is no time to read directions during an emergency.
- Portable extinguishers for home use, however, are not designed to fight large or spreading fires. Even against small fires, they are useful only under certain conditions.
- Used properly, a portable fire extinguisher can save lives and property by putting out a small fire or containing it until the fire department arrives.
Choosing Your Extinguisher
Fire extinguishers are tested by independent laboratories and labeled for the type and size of fire they can extinguish. Use these labels as a guide to purchase the kind of extinguisher that suits you needs.
Classes of Fires
There are three classes of fire. All fire extinguishers are labeled using standard symbols for the classes of fires they can put out. A red slash through any of the symbols tells you the extinguisher cannot be used on that class of fire. A missing symbol tells you only that the extinguisher has not been tested for a given class of fire.
- Class A: Ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, and paper.
- Class B: Flammable liquids such as gasoline, oil, and oil-based paint.
- Class C: Energized electrical equipment - including wiring, fuse boxes, circuit breakers, and appliances.
The extinguisher must be appropriate for the type of fire being fought. If you use the wrong type of extinguisher, you can endanger yourself and make the fire worse.
Multipurpose fire extinguishers marked ABC may be used on all three classes of fires. Remember, in some cases it may be dangerous to use any type of extinguisher. For instance, pressurized extinguishing agent could spread a grease pan fire rather than put it out.
Portable extinguishers are also rated for the size of fire they can handle. This rating will appear on the label. For example, 2A:10B: C. The larger the numbers, the larger the fire that the extinguisher can put out, but higher-rated models are often heavier. Make sure you can hold and operate the extinguisher before you buy it.
Installation & Maintenance
Extinguishers should be installed in plain view, above the reach of children, near an escape route, and away from stoves and heating appliances. Extinguishers require routine care. Read you operator's manual to learn how to inspect your extinguisher. Follow manufacturer's instructions on maintenance. Rechargeable models must be serviced after every use. (Service companies are listed in the Yellow Pages under "Fire Extinguishers.") Disposable fire extinguishers can be used only once and must be replaced after use.
Remember the Pass-Word
Keep your back to an unobstructed exit and stand six to eight feet away from the fire. Follow the four-step PASS procedure.
- Pull the pin: This unlocks the operating lever and allows you to discharge the extinguisher. Some extinguishers may have other lever-release mechanisms.
- Aim low: Point the extinguisher nozzle (or hose) at the base of the fire.
- Squeeze the lever above the handle: This discharges the extinguishing agent. Releasing the lever will stop the discharge. (Some extinguishers have a button instead of a lever.)
- Sweep from side to side: Moving carefully toward the fire, keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the fire and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out. Watch the fire area. If the fire reignites, repeat the process. *Always be sure the fire department inspects the fire site, even if you thing you've extinguished the fire.
Fighting the Fire
Before you begin to fight a fire:
- Be sure you have read the instructions and that you know how to use the extinguisher.
- Be sure you have an unobstructed escape route to which the fire will not spread.
- Make sure the fire department has been called (dial 911).
- Make sure the fire is confined to a small area and is not spreading.
- Make sure everyone has left, or is leaving, the building.
It is reckless to fight a fire in any other circumstances. Instead, leave immediately and close off the area.
*Reprinted from NFPA pamphlet "Home Portable Fire Extinguishers"